Published Articles

Dr Farah’s research focuses on exploring impact of different behavioral attributes of people on individual, group and organizational issues. The goal of her research is to develop theoretical models and test relationships between different constructs which aim at providing valuable insights regarding the existence and impact of several behavioral dimensions of employees. Consequently, these insights can be useful in developing models that result in more accurate predictions about employees behavior at given situation and resulting outcomes at organizational, groups and individual level. In gathering such insights, her research often combines methodology from the fields of psychology, economics, game theory, and sociology.

Read on to know about her research works.

Journals & Magazine Articles



Naqvi Farah (2021). Beware of Vampires in Disguise: Dark Empaths. Business Manager. Vol. 23. Issue No 7. Jan’ 2021. 


We can encounter dark empaths, almost anywhere guised in an attractive and friendly demeanour. In that relative or friend, who seem concerned about our well-being, listening wholeheartedly and then using the information to create stories or rumors. Understanding the nature of dark empaths is vital to prevent ourselves from being a victim of their malevolent designs. Most of us would like to safeguard ourselves before they cause us emotional damage. The best option one would like to opt is to avoid or distance oneself from such a person. This may, however, not always be possible because the person could be your boss, colleague or someone in the family with whom cutting off ties is not an option.

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Artificial Intelligence in Learning Domain!

Naqvi Farah (2020). AI in Learning Domain. Human Capital. Vol.24. Issue No 7. Dec’ 2020. Pp. 58-64


The field of robotics is growing rapidly attempting to create models with appropriate coordination of a large number of perceptual, sensory-motor, attentional, and cognitive processes. With the advancements in robotics, the question that arises is, whether the relationships between human beings and humanoid robots, can be characterized by a mode of interaction like the relationships between human beings that captures mental states and information both the expressed, implicit and unsaid?

Appreciating the burgeoning discipline of artificial intelligence, in this article, I aim to research how AI can influence the education sector. Can humanoid robots take up the role of teachers in the classroom or is it likely to remain irreplaceable by a machine? Or seeing how the millennial and generation Z are absorbed in their electronic devices, will the role of a human teacher become all the more critical and ingenious?

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Augmenting Employee Empowerment at Workplace

Naqvi Farah (2020). Augmenting Employee Empowerment at Workplace. Human Capital. Vol. 24. Issue No 5. Oct’ 2020. Pp. 58-61


Employee empowerment is a term that most organizations feel they understand and value, but not all are able to effectuate it advantageously in their business practices. Also, when we talk of enhancing employee empowerment at the workplace, the focus is primarily placed on job design, business practices and macro factors like organization culture. This article tries to throw light on factors related to employee, leader and use of VoE technologies for enhancing employee empowerment. 

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The Set Up To Fail Syndrome: A Case Study!

Naqvi Farah (2020). The Set up to Fail Syndrome: A Case Study. Human Capital. Vol.24. Issue No 3. July’ 2020. Pp. 38-40


Jean-François Manzoni and Jean-Louis Barsoux, in their book, The Set-Up-To- Fail Syndrome, write that when an employee underperforms, doubts are cast on his/her capabilities, while the manager and the organisation remain insulated. They further write that the Manager’s impression of the employee does not change even after a good performance, and he/she is almost always assigned unimportant tasks. This gives way to enhanced frustration on both fronts, resulting in either the employee quitting or getting fired. 

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Work at Home in Times of COVID 19

Naqvi Farah (2020). Work at Home in Times of COVID 19. KaleidoScope. Standing Conference of Public Enterprises. Vol. 40. Issue No 3. Aug’ 2020. Pp. 30-33


Initially, when the lockdown began, many had pictured this work from home as a temporary work change that would offer lots of free time away from the watchful eyes of the boss, coupled with flexibility in work schedule. Within a month of this voluntary lockdown, the humorous memes, the positive fantasies associated with work from home, unfortunately, started getting transformed to work at home exhaustion for many. As the pandemic data turns scarier each day and news of forced salary cuts, layoffs are increasing so are the uncertainties. The initial phase of work at home was akin to the honeymoon stage of burnout. Learning to work at home employees were eager to please and meet all work requests with enthusiasm. Very soon this started to get replaced by lassitude, a state of mental and physical weariness, discomfort, fatigue and burnout. If ones’ job is relatively secure and one is performing the same work from home, then why is it leading to increased stress when working from home. Some of the possible causes have been explored in this article.

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Burnout Syndrome: When the boss is the cause!

Naqvi Farah (2020). Burnout Syndrome: When the boss is the cause. Human Capital. Vol.24. Issue No 2. July’ 2020. Pp. 62-64


Work is an integral part of a person’s life and its imperative on organizations to take the issue of burnout seriously especially in current times where it is laden with layoffs, job insecurity, work from home and high dependence on technology. The present dynamic and uncertain work climate calls for drawing upon divine democratic managerial style for creating a synergistic work environment. It should be noted here that workplace burnout can be cumulative, so if a manager is experiencing burnout, it may affect those working with him too owing to the snowball effect. Various researches in recent years, including those conducted by Harvard, University of Manchester, indicate that poor leaders/toxic bosses are often the culprit for employee burnout. This article intends to explore ‘boss burnout’ taking into consideration eastern wisdom and western literature.

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Cognitive Dominance And Leader-Follower Exchange Dynamics

Naqvi Farah (2020). Cognitive Dominance and Leader-Follower Exchange Dynamics. Human Capital. Vol.24. Issue No 1. June’ 2020. Pp. 68-69


The presence of hierarchy is a universal feature in groups, organizations and society. Leaders matter greatly, for they are the key driver of effective mobilization of all resources. However, at the heart of organizational success lies the intricate exchange between leaders and followers. If this exchange doesn’t happen effectively, success gets questionable. We all remember our first boss for they have a lasting influence on how we perceive leaders. Fortunate are those who find a boss with whom they feel like nurturing a long-term relationship for it is mutually rewarding in terms of personal learning and growth. However, the reverse can also be true. You get a boss whose presence makes your work experience suffocating. This can happen if the work culture is driven by domination, or by one-sided communication. The employees here feel coerced and fear to engage in a dialogue. The relationship, risk taking the form of dominator(leader) and the dominated(followers), by virtue of their position and authority. The purpose of this article is to reflect on leadership, followership, leader-follower exchange from the lens of cognitive dominance matrix as proposed by Dr Subhash Sharma.


Perspectives of Indian Women Managers in the Public Sector

Naqvi Farah (2011). Perspectives of Indian Women Managers in the Public Sector. Indian Journal of Gender Studies. Sage Publications.Vol.18. No3.Oct- Dec’2011. Pp. 279-309


Women in India have struggled to establish an identity and create a space for themselves at their workplaces, especially in terms of leadership. This study explores and portrays women’s perceptions and dilemmas when confronted with the ideas and expectations of traditional society while conforming to a contemporary code of conduct at work. Women managers working in a leading public sector company were asked four key questions. Their responses highlight the values, attitudes and beliefs of the women and the challenges faced by them in their careers and within the family system, raising many issues and giving pointers for future research.


Keywords: Indian Women Managers, Women in public sector, role conflict

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Naqvi Farah (2013) Emotional labour in the education industry. Management and Change. IILM Institute for Higher Education. Vol. 16, No1-2. Pp. 83-100


Emotional labor concerns emotions in organizational life and organizational attempts to control and direct how employees display emotions to customers. Teaching is a profession that requires almost constant interaction with students involving a high level of emotional labor. This includes such behavior as surface acting, deep acting and suppression of emotion. This paper reviews literature on emotional labor and aims to study the different constructs of emotional labor in the teaching profession. Data was collected from teachers teaching at the graduate and postgraduate level in reputed colleges. It discusses the association between the variables of emotional labor, emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction.


Keywords: Emotional labor, Emotional exhaustion, Job satisfaction.



Pandey J., Gupta M, Naqvi Farah, (2016), “Developing Decision Making Measure: A Mixed Method Approach to Operationalize Sankhya Philosophy”. European Journal of Science and Theology, Vol 12, No. 2, pp 177-189


The process of managerial decision making is complex, challenging and often critical to the success of a business. Such a process affects and is affected by a number of factors. Owing to the vital role of decision making in today‟s businesses, we explore, examine and discuss the measures of manas–buddhi–ahamkaar (MBA) model of managerial decision making processes. MBA model of managerial decision making processes was suggested by Professor Subhash Sharma in his well–known book “Western Windows Eastern Doors”. This model has its roots in the classical Indian “Sankhya philosophy”. For this purpose, we started with qualitative analysis of focus groups and interviews that resulted in a total of 10 scenarios. Out of these 10, experts rated three most dominant scenarios – one each of manas, buddhi and ahamkaar. Exploratory factor analysis of 338 responses led to the development of a 17-item MBA measure consisting of three dimensions namely, seven-item manas scale, six-item buddhi scale and four-item ahamkaar scale. Other standard tests were carried out in order to ensure validity and reliability of these scales. The implications of these findings and direction for future research are also discussed in this paper.


Keywords: ahamkaar, buddhi, decision making, manas, mixed method


Emotional Labour: A Study of Moderators and Outcomes in Hotel Industry

Naqvi Farah (2013) “Emotional labour: a study of moderators and outcomes in hotel industry”. Management and Labor studies. XLRI Jamshedpur. Sage Publications. Vol. 38, No-4. Pp. 471-482


This study examines the emotional labour performed by employees in customer service roles working in the hospitality industry.The research investigates one of the consequences of performing emotional labour, namely, emotional exhaustion, and attempts to determine how self-monitoring and co-worker support can moderate the relationship between the emotional labour and the outcome variable taken in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 230 participants working in five-star chains of hotel industry and those having direct customer interaction participated in the study. Self-monitoring was found to be a moderator in the relationship between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion. Similarly, the analysis indicated that the positive association was weakened between emotional labour and emotional exhaustion where the employees received higher support from co-workers. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are also provided.


Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, self-monitoring, co-worker support

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The Relationship between Employee Empowerment and Organizational Commitment in the Hotel Industry and its Implications for the Management

Naqvi A, Naqvi Farah (2017), “The Relationship between Employee Empowerment and Organizational Commitment in the Hotel Industry and its Implications for the Management”, International Journal of Economic Research, Vol 14, Issue 12, pp 17-35 


In most companies with deeply entrenched hierarchical systems, employees’ development and performance may take a backseat. Employees might feel powerless and indifferent and this may affect their commitment and efficacy in some way (Crawford, et al., 2009). There is need for the leaders and managers to assess empowerment as a motivational factor to stimulate the employees’ commitment to service (Jogaratnam and Ching-Yick Tse, 2006; Havill, 2010). The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the relationship between employee empowerment and commitment. A questionnaire comprised of a battery of two standardized instruments by Spreitzer (1995) and Allen and Meyer (1990) respectively was distributed in the 12 selected hotels based in United Arab Emirates (UAE) and data gathered from 273 employees were evaluated. Spearman Correlation and Linear Regression were used as the main methods to examine the relation of the two concepts. The finding of the study shows substantial evidence supporting the relationship between affective commitment and empowerment and supports previous studies that commitment is an indispensable constituent in the process of empowering employees (Manville and Ober, 2003; Thomas and Velthouse, 1990). Further there is less evidence supporting the relationship between normative commitment and empowerment and continuance commitment and empowerment was found. The study finally concludes with recommendation to examine the relation between dimensions with help of Multilevel Regression Analysis.


Keywords: Employee Empowerment; affective commitment; normative commitment; continuance commitment.


A Study on Learning Styles, Gender and Academic Performance of Post Graduate Management Students in India

Naqvi A, Naqvi Farah (2017) “A Study on Learning Styles, Gender and Academic Performance of Post Graduate Management Students in India”. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences Vol 6, issue 1, P 1 – 6


The management courses in higher education has experienced a rapid increase in the number of female students in the past decade. A number of factors were found attributing to the cause including some major social and educational factors. These factors are well studied by the scholars in the past. However, there is still considerable gap in the literature pertaining to the relationship between learning styles and gender differences in the context of management education. This paper focuses on management education using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) and explores the effects of learning styles and gender on the performance scores of undergraduate students in three successive academic years. Results of the study indicate that the distribution of learning style type preference of the chosen sample of students was more concentrated towards assimilating and converging styles. Further results also indicate non-significant difference of learning style and gender in all groups. The performance scores of males were found higher in Finance and Marketing disciplines, whereas scores of females were higher in Human Resource and International Business disciplines irrespective of non consistency in all the groups. The study concludes that instructors should use a learning strategy matching with the style of each learner in different majors of management opted by the students.

Keywords: Learning styles; Kolb; Experiential learning theory; Gender; Management education

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McDonald’s UK: Staffing & Retention Issues

Naqvi A, Naqvi Farah (2017), “McDonald’s UK, Staffing & Retention Issues: A Case Study”, International Journal of Economic Research, Vol 14, Issue 17, pp 529-537


The ever changing structure of the business unit often presents some of the most interesting challenges in the world of business. A lot of companies have faced significant challenges with issues like staffing and retention of employees. In the business unit, there are a multitude of factors that have led to and continual decline in the amount of people who remain at a job three years after the first inquiry. This paper focuses on strategies and measures that a business can use to improve on their staffing and employee retention. The principles discussed in the paper give a theoretical framework of approaches that have worked in the past and present and have potential sustainability in the future. The focus of the paper is McDonalds UK. While the theoretical issues discussed have been applied in different institutions, the theoretical issues discussed are explicitly valuable to the staffing problem that Mc Donald’s UK had since 2008 till date. The paper therefore merges the principles in human resource management and applies them in the context of Mc Donald’s UK.


Key Words: McDonald’s UK, staffing, retention

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Construction of Skill Inventory scale for assessing requisite skills and competencies of Management Graduates

Naqvi A. Naqvi Farah (2017), “Construction of Skill Inventory Scale for assessing requisite skills and competencies of Management Graduates” International Journal of Educational Research & Technology, vol. 8, issue 1, P 9-17


With the increasing establishment of private organization catering to Indian market; the need for professionals to manage these businesses has catapulted. The business environment in India is in dire need of professionals with managerial skills to spearhead in the competitive and turbulent market. It has been observed that a management degree helps in imparting the career competencies and enables these students in their career success (Sturges et al., 2003). Though a lot has been written on the education institutes offering management courses in Indian market, yet a systematic study on the skills and competencies that these institutes help the students to horn and those required by the industry are quite a few. This paper helps to bridge this gap by taking into account the needs of the industry by constructing a Skill Inventory Scale for assessing the requisite skills and competencies of management graduates. A detailed questionnaire has been prepared after analyzing the literature and conducting ‘structured interviews’ with both line and staff managers. These questionnaire has been administered to the Managers and working professionals with an management degree and more than 1 year of experience. Four factors namely Intrinsic Imperatives, Executional Imperatives, Managerial Imperatives and Technical Imperatives were extracted.


Key Words: Management Education, Managerial Skills & Competencies, Scale Construction


Development and Validation of Emotional Labour Scale for Teachers

Naqvi Farah (2014) “Development and Validation of Emotional Labour Scale for Teachers”. IPE Journal of Management; Jan-Jun2014, Vol. 4 Issue 1, p1-20, 20p


This paper describes the development and validation of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS for teachers. The development of the ELS was based on the need for an instrument to assess emotional labour for teachers. The first phase of the study consisted of pilot testing on a sample of 118 teachers teaching in management colleges in India focused on condensing the instrument and exploring the underlying factor structure. The second phase of the research comprised of confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the factor structure and examine the convergent and discriminate validity done on a sample of 396 management teachers in higher education. Various statistical analyses showed that the scale has both high reliability and validity as a measure of emotional labour. Confirmatory factor analysis results provided support to the two facets of ELS. The implications and future scope of the study are discussed in detail. The final analysis resulted in a six item self-report questionnaire that measures the two key components of emotional labour viz. surface acting and deep acting.


Keywords: Surface acting, deep acting, emotional labor, teachers, higher education


Management Lessons from the Chakravyuha Episode of Mahabharata

Naqvi Farah (2011). Management Lesson from the Chakravyuah episode of Mahabharata. International Social Science Journal. Vol. 27, No.2


Mahabharata is a source of inspiration to umpteen number of writers of different Indian languages. Numerous episodes, legends and stories in it have provided a basic theme for independent works. The great epic besides being a storehouse of ancient knowledge is a common man’s Veda. For ages, listening to Mahabharata intently formed education in a country where oral instruction was order of the day. It is a code of conduct which provides answers to many day-to-day problems as it symbolizes the eternal conflict between good and evil and inward struggle of man himself This paper studies an episode from the Mahabharata centering on the contemporary character of Abhimanyu and does an intensive analysis of the same offering implications for management.

Keywords: Mahabharat, Chakravyuha Episode, Management.


Women Empowerment and the Collective Consciousness: Towards A New Model of Women Empowerment and Leadership

Naqvi Farah (2010) Women Empowerment and the Collective Consciousness: Towards A New Model of Women Empowerment and Leadership. 3D IBA Journal of management and leadership. Vol.2 No.1, pp. 34-46


This paper reviews literature on women empowerment and collective consciousness theory and thereby offers a new approach to looking at women empowerment and leadership and strategies for the way ahead. It throws light on the need for a collective consciousness for bringing real empowerment at grass root level. It introduces a new model on women empowerment and leadership based on the ideology of three leading Indian women who have made their mark in contribution to the society and country.


Spirituality in Organizational Life: An Empirical study of Spirituality and Job attitudes

Naqvi Farah, A. Chatterjee (2010). Spirituality in Organizational Life. Abhigyan Journal of Management. Vol 28, No3, pp. 18-29


Given the amount of time people spend at work, the work environment becomes an important predictor of employees’ well-being. The concept of workplace spirituality brings attention to the work environment as a critical influencer of employees’ wellbeing and performance. A spiritual workplace is an employee-friendly work environment that recognizes, supports, and develops the spirit of its employees. This study examines the concept of spirituality in the workplace, drawing on recent literature and theoretical models and conducts research to empirically assess the relationships among certain core dimensions of spirituality and employee job attitudes besides proposing an integrative model having implications for research and application.

Keywords: Spirituality, Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement

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Naqvi Farah (2010). Case Study: Pygmalion in Management. KBSCMR Journal of Management Research. Vol 1, No.1, pp. 70-74


The case reported here is with few exceptions, based upon a true story. While the essential feature of the story has been retained, the names of the people and organization have been changed to protect their identities, as well as to make the case more flexible for training purposes. This case can be used successfully in various management and supervisory training programs. It can be used in the classroom discussion for management students to sensitize them to important behavior issues. The case was presented and discussed at the National Conference on Management Case Development, IBS, Bangalore.


Competency Mapping and Managing Talent

Naqvi Farah (2009). Competency Mapping and Talent Management. Journal of Management Research. Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 85-94


The performance of companies depends mostly on the quality of their human resource. For obvious economic and business reasons, organizations have always been concerned about the competence of its people. This paper seeks to delve deeper into the concept of competency, tracing its history and its role in the present context. It explains how the concept has constantly evolved over the years, its applications in human resource management, and development in the present scenario. It also aims to study its future prospects in the light of other emerging areas like talent management. The paper proceeds with the examples of companies, which have successfully integrated competency-based systems in their HR initiatives


Effect of work stress and Employee level on Mental health and Coping of Public Sector Employees

Naqvi Farah (2009). Effect of Employee Level and Occupational Stress on Mental Health, Stress and Coping. International Social Science Journal. Vol. 25, No 1. pp 52-64.


This study sought to identify the extent to which work stressors and employee level were associated with mental health problems experienced by employees working in a public sector company. The study also investigates whether the employees at the senior and lower level differ in the experience of stress. Data was collected from a randomly drawn sample of 96 government employees aged above 35 years comprising of senior and lower level staff. When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, employees at the lower level reported poorer mental health in comparison to that of senior level employees, Both senior and middle level staffs who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. Employees ’ health is less affected by their position within the structural hierarchy and is more associated with various work stressors.


Talent Management in the Financial Services

Naqvi Farah (2009). Talent Management in the Financial Services. International Social Science Journal. Vol. 25, No2, pp 67-74


Talent is the key driving force to organizational success, though for long it had been underscored by organizations. However in response to many changes in the workplace, from the industrial revolution and the rise of labor unions, to globalization, and outsourcing, talent management practices have developed and adapted throughout the years making it a top priority for organizations now. This article covers a number of trends that have shaped our current practices as well as those that will contribute to future strategies with a special reference to the financial services sector. It also aims at throwing light and distinguishing between the talent and competency based approach besides studying some of the issues relating to it in terms of attracting, developing and retaining talent.


Emotional labour in the light of Emotional Intelligence: A Review with a New Paradigm

Naqvi Farah (2009). Emotional Labour in the light of Emotional Intelligence: A Review with a New Paradigm. Abhigyan Journal of Management. Vol. 27, No 2, 27-42


Societies have workforces that are moving from manufacturing to service-oriented work. This basically means that we increasingly have jobs where we deal with people rather than things. Apart from this greater competition and higher expectations has put the consumer on a pedestal where all the service organizations are competing to provide the best quality of service. Constantly having to deal with people rather than things often brings unique stresses, at work. All this leads to greater use of emotional labor at workplace. This paper does an extensive review of literature on the concept of emotional labor, discusses it in the light of affective events theory with the moderating role of emotional intelligence competencies and proposes a model that has great potential for practical application in organizations.

Keywords: Emotions, Emotional labor, Emotional intelligence, Affective events theory

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